Yes and no. No in the most useful sense, because all carbon fiber has an epoxy glaze on it that you'd have to cut through to actually affect the structural integrity of the pole. Even then, carbon fiber poles are crazy strong. I've landed on them pretty hard and they feel like they'll break your ribs before themselves.
That said, if you DO manage to gouge them deep enough to actually cut some of the fibers, then that's probably the point they'll break at. I'd bet that the joint between the two sections is actually the weakest link, but if you skied over that particular scratched section, I could see it happening.
Not something I'd worry about at all though.